NIETZSCHE PROJECT RACISM
"The task of breeding a race of rulers" 2
"How do get men to a great strength and a great goal? At the end appears just a man, a monster of force, requiring a monstrous goal"4. The monster Nietzsche5.
This paper is based on the analysis of the texts of Friedrich Nietzsche. Along with the term "Aufgabe", its synonyms and derivative, we explore the term "Rasse" its synonyms and derivatives in all the texts of Nietzsche in German. We submit what Nietzsche calls, "my project", "my task", "my purpose”, "my problem", "my demand", "my concern", "my destiny", most vividly expressed, "my will", "my will to power", "my will to Übermensch"6, that is to say, the "goal" of his life.
It is his "fixe idée”7, as he defined it in "Noble and vulgar" of "Joyful": "say the vulgar: noble sentiment must be attached to a disease of reason, so they think and look disparagingly, underestimating the happiness of the fool with his ‘fixe idée’"8. "To take himself as fatum, nothing else wanting. In such circumstances is the great reason itself"9
What he calls "task", is to get a stronger race, a species, a lineage, a nature, a caste, a new type of man, who is no longer a man. Of the multiple aspects of the project in the biological, socio-political, moral, religious, ideological in general, here briefly we expose the first aspect, the biological nature of the project of Nietzsche in these three phases: ideology, content, and the means to achieve it.
The concept of "race" is brewing at the time of Nietzsche since the Illustration. Nietzsche uses "Rasse" 10referring explicitly to biological race of zoological taxonomy applied to humans. This racial-biological connotation is present in other uses of the "racial" terms, the symbolic, but not ideal idealist interpretation, angrily rejected by Nietzsche. Nietzsche associate with "race" different characters besides biological, anatomical and physiological: instinct, impulse, passion, reproduction, heredity, health/disease, purity, blending, degeneration11, also with socio-cultural and historical connotations, individual and collective.
In the latter half of the 19th century the term "race" in the general taxonomy of beings fits between the terms in general from the Latin language, as Rasse, Typus, Klasse, Gattung, Spezies, Art, Stamm, Ethnie, Volk, Nation, Familie, Geschlecht12, and other designations of human collectives in which prevails the indication of generation and inheritance.
This paper can be considered a part of a future broader study of the semantic field "Rasse" in all the publically available Nietzsche’s writings in German, which expresses the collective, generative and social aspect, the race relations, the racial dualism with descriptions and depreciations of races, peoples and nations.
2 "die Aufgabe setzten, eine Herren-Rasse heraufzuzüchten" (F,1885 2).
3 Letters to M.Baumgartner 770830, a H.v.Stein 840522; "Menschliches" 285; "Ecce homo" Menschliches 6. Cf. "Selbstvergöttung""Verklärung"; delusions, voices and other psycopathic phenomenons.
4 "das Unthier Nietzsche" (an Meta 881229); "Ihr Nietzsche, jetzt Unthier" (an Brandes 881120); "In freundschaftlicher Verehrung Nietzsche, Unthier" (an Fynn 881206); "mich krank macht, und das Kleinste zu einem Unthier anwächst" (an Franziska 880217).
5 "Am Ende nämlich erscheint ein Mensch, ein Ungeheuer von Kraft, welches nach einem Ungeheuer von Aufgabe verlangt" (F,1884,26).
6 I will maintain "Übermensch" and avoid translations, rightly transvaluations Nietzche’s values.
7 "Fixe idée" en Max Stirner, "Der Einzige und sein Eigenthum".
8 "welche der Irrsinnige von seiner fixen Idee her hat" ("Joyful" 3)
9 "Sich selbst wie ein Fatum nehmen, nicht sich "anders" wollen" ("Ecce" Warum ich so weise bin 6).
10 "Rasse", en Georges 1914, genus, eris, n. (geno = gigno, vgl. γένος); cf. Γένος / Φύσiς en Pape 1842-1914)..
11 "Instinkt", "Trieb", "Liebe”, "Fortpflanzung", "Erbe", ·Gesundheit"/"Krankheit", "Reinheit".
12 Cf. Linné, Cuvier; "Mensch" in Meyer's 1905: Typus der Wirbeltiere und im besondern der Säugetiere. Im System werden die Gattungen zu Gruppen, Familien, Ordnungen und Klassen". English: race, breed, stock, line, tribe, clan, ethnic group, folk, kinfolk, strain, variety, etc.
TO BE CONTINUED: